Interesting work, thanks for sharing! 

(I've cross-posted this comment from LessWrong, in case anyone who is unlikely to see my original comment wants to push back)

I haven’t had a chance to read the full paper, but I didn’t find the summary account of why this behavior might be rational particularly compelling.

At a first pass, I think I’d want to judge the behavior of some person (or cognitive system) as “irrational” when the following three constraints are met:

(1) The subject, in some sense, has the basic capability to perform the task competently, and

(2) They do better (by their own values) if they exercise the capability in this task, and

(3) In the task, they fail to exercise this capability.

Even if participants are operating with the strategy “maximize expected answer value”, I’d be willing to judge the participants' responses as “irrational” if the participants were cognitively competent, understood the concept '90% confidence interval', and were incentivized to be calibrated on the task (say, if participants received increased monetary rewards as a function of their calibration).

Pointing out that informativity is important in everyday discourse doesn’t do much to persuade me that the behavior of participants in the study is “rational”, because (to the extent I find the concept of “rationality” useful), I’d use the moniker to label the ability of the system to exercise their capabilities in a way that was conducive to their ends.

I think you make a decent case for claiming that the empirical results outlined don’t straightforwardly imply irrationality, but I’m also not convinced that your theoretical story provides strong grounds for describing participant behaviors as “rational”.

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